secretion of, or resistance to the effects of, antidiuretic hormone
(ADH or Vasopressin). This hormone stimulates the kidney retain
water in the body. Consequently, the dog passes a large volume
of urine with a low specific gravity, and also exhibits great
thirst. It may be acquired, inherited, or idiopathic. mellitus
due to a failure of the pancreas to produce sufficient
insulin, or the cells resistance to the effects of insulin the
body is unable to properly process glucose. May require insulin
injections, or may be controlled with diet. May be acquired or
insipidus is a disorder in which the kidney is insensitive to
a hormone, called anti-diuretic hormone (ADH) or in which there
is not sufficient quantity of this hormone available. The result
is excessive drinking and urination, or polydipsia and polyuria.
This is one cause of changes in urinary habits that leads to problems
with urination inside the house in dogs in which "housebreaking"
seemed to be satisfactory prior to the disease onset.
is secreted by the body when it has a need to conserve water.
It makes the kidneys work harder to conserve water, which makes
the urine more concentrated. When the dog can not respond to this
hormone or doesn't make enough of it, the dog can not concentrate
its urine. This can lead to serious problems, including death,
if the dog does not have access to large quantities of water.
On the other hand, it may not cause any significant problem if
there is always plenty of water available. This problem can occur
for a number of reasons and for no reason at all. Examples of
predisposing causes are kidney failure, hyperadrenocorticism,
liver disease, pyometra and others. These things affect the kidney's
ability to respond. Head trauma or brain cancer can affect the
body's ability to produce ADH.
condition is treated using desmopressin acetate (DDAVP), which
is a replacement for the anti-diuretic hormone. It can be administered
intra-nasally or on the conjunctiva (the inside lining of the
eyes). It is pretty effective. Unfortunately, it is also somewhat
expensive. Some dogs benefit from therapy with other medications,
including chlorpropamide and chlorothiazide diuretics.
prognosis for this condition varies with the underlying cause.
Dogs that have diabetes insipidus due to trauma often recover
in a short time and the same is true after successful treatment
of pyometra. The prognosis is good for spontaneous occurrences
of diabetes insipidus as well. When it occurs for other reasons
the prognosis is usually less favorable.